Linguistic identity, in his opinion, has three structural levels. The first level – verbal and semantic (semantic-drill, invariant), which reflects the degree of knowledge of everyday language. The second level – the cognitive, which is updated and the identification of relevant knowledge and concepts inherent in socium (linguistic identity) and generate a collective and (or) individual cognitive space. This level involves a reflection of the personality of a linguistic model of the world, its thesaurus, and culture. And the third – the highest level – the pragmatic. It includes the identification and characterization of the motives and goals that drive the development of the language person.
Therefore, the encoding and decoding of information occurs in the interaction of the three levels of the “communicative space of personality” – the verbal-semantic, cognitive and pragmatic.
The concept of a three-level device linguistic identity in some way correlated with the three types of communication needs – kontaktoustanavlivayuschey, information and acting, as well as the three sides of the communication process – communicative, interactive and perceptive.
Level model of linguistic identity reflects a generalized personality type. Specific language as individuals in a given culture can be set, they are different variations of the importance of each level within the individual. Thus, the linguistic identity – a multi-layered and multi-component paradigm voice personalities. In this case, the identity of speech – a linguistic identity in the paradigm of real communication in business. It is at the level of individual speech appear as cultural identity linguistic identity and cultural identity of the communication.
In the content of the language person usually included the following components:
1) values, worldview, a component of the content of education, ie system of values, or life meaning. Language provides an original and profound view of the world, forms the image of the world of language and hierarchy of spiritual concepts that lie at the basis of the formation of the national character and implemented in the course of language dialogue communication;
2) cultural studies component, ie, the level of development of culture as an effective means of increasing interest in the language. Bringing the target language culture facts related to the rules of speech and nonverbal behavior contributes to the development of skills and the adequate use of effective impact on the communication partner;
3) using the individual components, ie, a personalized, in-depth, that there is in every human being.
The parameters of the language person just beginning to be developed. It is characterized by a certain margin of words having a particular rank frequency of use, which fill the abstract syntax model. If the model is quite typical representative of the linguistic community, the vocabulary and manner of speaking may indicate that it belongs to a particular to the society, to testify about the level of education, the type of character that indicates the gender and age, etc. Linguistic repertoire of a person whose activities are related to the execution of dozens of social roles, must be learned with the speech etiquette accepted in society.
Linguistic identity exists in the space of culture as reflected in language, in the forms of social consciousness at different levels (scientific, consumer, etc.), in behavior patterns and norms in the objects of material culture, etc. The decisive role in the culture belongs to the values of the nation, which are concepts of meaning.
Cultural values are a system in which you can highlight the universal and the individual, the dominant and additional meanings. They are reflected in the language, or rather, the meanings of words and syntactic units, in phraseology, in proverbs and sayings and precedent texts (by N. Karaulov). For example, in all cultures condemn human vices such as greed, cowardice, lack of respect for elders, laziness, etc., but in every culture, these vices have different signs of combinatorics.
For each culture can develop parameters that will be a kind of its coordinates. These parameters will be considered the original value-signs.
To date, there are different approaches to the study of linguistic identity, defining the status of its existence in Linguistics: polilektnaya (mnogochelovecheskaya) and idiolektnaya (chastnochelovecheskaya) the person (VP Neroznak) etnosemanticheskaya person (SG Vorkachev), elitist linguistic identity ( O.B.Sirotinina, T. V.Kochetkova) semiological personality (A. Baranov), Russian language person (N. Sentries), language and speech identification (YE Prokhorov, LP Klobukova ), the linguistic identity of Western and Eastern cultures (TN Snitko) dictionary linguistic identity (VI Karasik), emotional linguistic identity (V. I.Shahovsky), etc.
There are other concepts of linguistic identity. So, VV Red highlights in it the following components: 1) the person speaking – personality, one of the activities of which is the speech activity, and 2) the actual language personality – a personality which manifests itself in speech activity, which has a body of knowledge and ideas, and 3 ) voice personality – a personality that realizes itself in communication, picking and carrying out a particular strategy and tactics of communication, the repertoire of tools, and 4) the communicative personality – a particular participant a specific communicative act, really operating in a real communication.
In this tutorial, we will operate with only two components of the language person – the actual language and communicative.
Thus, the linguistic identity – a social phenomenon, but it is and the individual aspect. Individual in linguistic identity is formed through the inner relation to language, through the establishment of personal meanings of language, but it should not be forgotten that the language personality influences the formation of linguistic traditions. Each linguistic identity is formed on the basis of the assignment of a specific person linguistic wealth created by their predecessors. Language specific person is more of a common language and to a lesser – of individual linguistic characteristics.
Personality at all, in the figurative definition N.F.Alefirenko, born as a kind of “knot”, tied in a network of reciprocal relations between the members of a particular ethnic and cultural communities in the course of their joint activities. In other words, the primary means of turning the individual into the language of his personality is socialization, which assumes three aspects: a) the incorporation of rights in certain social relations, in which linguistic identity is a kind of realization of cultural and historical knowledge of the whole society, and b) active rechemyslitelnyh activities norms and standards specified by a particular ethno-linguistic culture, and c) the process of learning the laws of the social psychology of the people. For the formation of the language person special role belongs to the second and third aspects, since the process of appropriation of a national culture and the formation of social psychology is only possible through language, which is the culture, in the words S.Lema, the same as the central nervous system for human life. Linguistic and cultural identity – embodied in the language (mainly in vocabulary and syntax) the underlying national cultural prototype vehicle specific language, constituting a timeless and invariant part of the personality structure.